Cost and efficiency analysis in iron and steel production

(Tekhniko-ekonomicheskie raschety v chernoi metallurgii) by N. P. Bannyĭ

Publisher: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; [available from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.] in Jerusalem

Written in English
Published: Pages: 289 Downloads: 116
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  • Soviet Union
  • Subjects:

    • Iron industry and trade -- Soviet Union -- Management.,
    • Steel industry and trade -- Soviet Union -- Management.
    • Edition Notes

      Bibliographical footnotes.

      Statement[Translated by A. Barouch. Edited by E. Vilim]
      LC ClassificationsTN707 .B3413
      The Physical Object
      Paginationvi, 289 p.
      Number of Pages289
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL5634936M
      LC Control Number68062027

system. This book provides basic information covering every aspect of iron and steel production as well as a practical aid for workers engaged in the field. After an introduction that deals with the history and production of iron and steel, the rest of the book examines their physical properties and metallurgy. melt shops. Over 65 percent of all scrapped steel cans and appliances are now captured and eventually returned to furnaces (see Figure 4). The net results of this industry-wide efficiency are remarkable. Although steel yields (shipments per ton of raw steel) remained constant for 60 years, they have risen in the last 20 years from about On average, this process uses 1, kilograms (or kg) of iron ore, kg of coal, kg of limestone, and kg of recycled steel to produce a ton of crude steel. Around 40% of steel in the U.S. Breakeven Cost of HRC Production Break- even Cost of HRC Production for OBF @ $/t increase of $55/t over reference plant without capture • Capital Cost increased by % • Fuel and Reductant Cost increased by % • Coking Coal Cost – decreased by ~24% • Natural Gas Cost – increased by ~% • Iron Burden Cost increased by %.

The iron and steel industry is the second largest industrial user of energy, consuming Mtoe ( EJ) in (IEA, b), and is the largest industrial source of direct CO 2emissions ( Gt in ). Overall, iron and steel production accounts for around 20% of. Global iron and steel market Production. Over the last 35 years, the iron and steel industry has seen significant changes. In mln tonnes of steel was produced and the following countries were among the leaders: USSR (21% of global steel production), Japan (16%), USA (14%), Germany (6%), China (5%), Italy (4%), France and Poland (3%), Canada and Brazil (2%). Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. According to the World Steel Association, world crude steel production has increased from million tonnes (Mt) in to 1, Mt in and world average steel use per capita has steadily increased from kg in to kg in factors: iron ore, coking coal, coke, scrap and energy. As a result, the cost of steel production has surged. The global operating cost of HR coil, for example, has increased from an estimated US$–/tonne in to US$–/tonne in It is not only the average cost of steel production .

In the production of steel, the following inputs account for 90 percent of the cost of steel: coal (C), iron ore (I R), labor (L), steel scrap (SS), and capital (K) [Hekman , p. 14]. Consequently, the steel-production function for firm i can be represented as: II I:l. where qi = the total tonnage of steel product.   The steel industry is changing to lower its carbon footprint, employing a range of innovative technologies to lower the environmental impact of its manufacturing output.   With the growing demand, China’s iron and steel industry has obtained rapid development since the s. China’s steel output reached million tons for the first time in , becoming the first country whose annual production exceeded million tons. The iron and steel is an industry of high energy consumption, high pollution and high emissions which has attracted deep . The production of iron, steel, and aluminum is a highly energy-intensive process, accounting for 10% of total manufacturing energy use of recycling in the manufacturing process of these metals has been a main driver of improvements in energy efficiency within the industry.

Cost and efficiency analysis in iron and steel production by N. P. Bannyĭ Download PDF EPUB FB2

Cost and efficiency analysis in iron and steel production. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations; [available from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Cost and efficiency analysis in iron and steel production book (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: N P Bannyĭ.

Iron and Steel Production 30 Cost Analysis Results 83 Implications of Enablers and Barriers 84 Shorter-term options 84 This report is a ‘decarbonisation and energy efficiency roadmap for the iron and steel sector, one of a series.

Unfortunately, the above cost data, the only figures readil y available, understate the measures taken by the steel industry toward waste reduction. Modernization and expansion of plants also imply pollution control through greater efficiency and economy in the use of resource inputs.

Research spon-sored by the American Iron and Steel Institute. challenges. The Energy Efficiency Directive governs actions towards increased energy efficiency as a means of addressing these challenges (European Commission, ). In this context, energy intensive industries such as the iron and steel industry are of particular interest.

The iron and steel industry is considered strategic in many countries due. The total makes a book cost of pig iron of $ Taking out now the transfer profit, $, there is left a net cost of $ Advancing to Bessemer rail ingots, there appears a book cost of $ All the preceding intermediate profits, however, have been carried forward in the book cost of the raw material, pig iron.

The production of steel in an EAF is a batch process. Cycles, or "heats", range from about /2 to 5 hours to produce carbon steel and from 5 to 10 hours or more to produce alloy steel.

Scrap steel is charged to begin a cycle, and alloying agents and slag materials are added for refining. Stages. Motivated by this mission, we measure and analyze energy efficiency in the country's iron and steel industries applying data envelopment analysis using firm-level panel data over the period Production and Cost Analysis The entire production process begins with the supply of factors of production or inputs used towards the production of a final good we all consume in the final good market.

Some examples of these factors of production are the labor you will supply when you. It is also the largest emitter of CO2 emissions. It constitutes a significant portion of the cost of steel production. The cost of energy as percentage of the total cost is in the range of 20 % to 40 % depending upon production route, type of iron ore and coal used, the steel product mix, operation control technology, and material efficiency.

Fixed cost is normally used in the breakeven analysis to determine pricing and the minimum level of production and sales under which the steel organization generates neither profit nor loss.

The two major components of fixed costs are depreciation of the assets and interest on the capital loan taken for the creation of the assets. Iron & Steel Manufacturing in the US industry trends () Iron & Steel Manufacturing in the US industry outlook () poll Average industry growth x.x lock Purchase this report or a membership to unlock the average company profit margin for this industry.

steel company to constantly reduce production cost to survive. Energy cost usually accounts for nearly 30% of the total cost in iron and steel enterprises, which is much more than that in advanced steel producing countries but also reflect China’s huge potential in reducing cost in iron and steel industry.

Improving energy efficiency is. • Energy constitutes a significant portion of the cost of steel production, from 20% to 40%.2, 3 Thus, improvements in energy efficiency result in reduced production costs and thereby improved competitiveness. • The energy efficiency of steelmaking facilities varies depending on production route, type and quality of iron.

The steel industry has made significant improvements in carbon efficiency through technical developments. Nevertheless the iron and steel industry still accounts for % of the global CO2 emissions.

To make further progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions there is an increasing focus on new technologies and new approaches to produce steel. Production and consumption of iron and steel The production of crude steel in the EU in was Mt, representing % of the total world production (Mt of crude steel), compared to % ten years earlier (in ), even though production was higher.

Inwith the financial crisis, steel production in Europe dropped by 30 %. Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. Inthe iron and steel industry accounted for % and % of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S.

DOE/EIA, a; Zhang et al., ). The energy efficiency of steel production. efficiency measures as well as the introduction of energy management systems (EnMS) that are cost-efficient, structured and effective.

Further, widely-available information clearly emphasises how the steel sector itself can significantly benefit from energy efficiency. Beyond cost savings, energy efficiency can increase companies’. John L.

Provis, Jannie S.J. van Deventer, in Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (Fifth Edition), Non-Blastfurnace Slag Precursors. Steel production, from iron and/or recycled scrap, is a multi-stage process which results in the production of a variety of l of these slags contain hydraulic or latent hydraulic compounds, and can display very good binding.

Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility.

There are a variety of opportunities. For example, with a cycle time of 12 seconds, efficie5% and a Machine hourly cost of 77,3 Euro we obtain: MACHINING COST = 77,3 * 12 / 0, / = 0,32 Euro. So the total direct cost of the production for one piece is: And in our example: TOTAL PRODUCT COST IN.

Global Iron and Steel Market: Drivers, Threats, and Opportunities. The construction industry, by far, has been the leading consumer of steel and iron, using up more of the materials than even wood and cement.

However, steel and iron producers are now compelled to compete with new construction materials such as ceramics and polymers. various Iron and Steel processes that are briefly discussed in section IV; this appendix also includes an estimate of GHG emissions from the various sectors and processes.

Description of the Iron and Steel Industry The production of steel at an Integrated Iron And Steel plant is accomplished using several interrelated processes. Iron & Steel Industry's current Price to book ratio has increased due to shareprice growth of %, from beginning of the second quarter and despite average book value over the trailig twelve month period increase of % quarter on quarter, to PB offrom average the Price to book ratio in the first quarter of Brazil is one of the BRIC countries, a grouping coined in to refer to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China.

Brazil’s crude steel production was million tonnes (Mt) incoming from 28 mills, consisting of 13 integrated mills and 15 mini mills. This production is supported by 30 Mt of pig iron and about 11 Mt of coke. Integration cost of ore, when mined and transported to lower Lake ports, $ The book cost was $ Bessemer pig iron, integration cost, $ The book cost was $ Included in both cases is an item of general expense and depreciation - "additional costs"- approximated at $ Bessemer rail ingots, integration cost, $ Quick Ratio Comment: On the trailing twelve months basis Iron & Steel Industry 's Cash & cash equivalent grew by % in the 3 Q sequentially, while Current Liabilities decreased, this led to improvement in Iron & Steel Industry's Quick Ratio to in the 3 Qabove Iron & Steel Industry average Quick Ratio.

Within Basic Materials sector 2 other industries have achieved higher. Inthe iron and steel industry accounted for % and % of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, a; Zhang et al., ).

The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. The goal of this study is to.

industry and consumers. This source of iron units was inexpensive and when coupled with a small, low capital steel mill consisting primarily of an electric arc furnace, a continuous caster and a rolling mill prompted the explosion in use of the electric arc furnace for steel production.

WORLD CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION TO Years World Years World. Basic Oxygen Furnace Route Steelmaking Costs Conversion costs for BOF steelmaking.

Steel Cost Modelling Notes The Steel Costing Model The economic model shown above is prepared only to shown how liquid steel cost can be calculated through a simple cost benchmarking type approach.

The predicted total costing shown is not meant to represent an actual cost for any real steel company. Whereas iron ore remains steady in USD /t range with higher-than-expected China steel production growth. With steady costs amidst declining prices we forecast 2H19 margins of TATA, JSPL to be USD /t lower than 2 nd Quarter levels.Initially "electric steel" was a specialty product for such uses as machine tools and spring furnaces were also used to prepare calcium carbide for use in carbide Stassano electric furnace is an arc type furnace that usually rotates to mix the bath.

The Girod furnace is similar to the Héroult furnace. While EAFs were widely used in World War II for production of alloy.However, too often the only cost analysis performed at the inception of a project is initial cost.

The Life-Cycle Cost Calculator (LCCC) uses your specific imputed project data to develop and compare the initial and total cost (initial + maintenance) of more than 30 steel corrosion protection systems (paint, metallizing) to hot-dip galvanizing.